BUDAPEST, Hungary (AP) — To Olena, it feels like Vladimir Putin has been chasing her for years.
Fed up with Putin’s government, the Russian citizen left her native country six years ago and moved to Ukraine, where she helped raise funds for women and children whose homes had been destroyed in years of fighting between Ukrainian forces and Russian-backed separatists in the Donbas region.
Then, this week, she was on the move again — fleeing her adopted home of Kyiv ahead of Putin’s invaders.
“It looks like I’m a double refugee now because first I fled from Russia because I was against Putin,” said Olena, who spoke on condition that she be identified only by her first name for fear of reprisals against her or her family. “I fled from Russia, and then Russia came to Ukraine.”
Olena and five colleagues left Kyiv after three nights in a bomb shelter, the thuds of explosions reverberating. They arrived in Hungary on Thursday after a harrowing, three-day flight.
Seated on a train in the Hungarian border town of Zahony before departing for the capital of Budapest, Olena said she had participated in anti-Putin protests in Russia, but came to realize that “Putin will just rule for as long as he lives. So I chose to vote with my legs and leave.”
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She moved to Ukraine, she said, because she was inspired by the Maidan revolution of 2014, when sustained protests forced the ouster of Ukraine’s Moscow-backed president, Viktor Yanukovych.
“As long as Putin is in power, I will never go back,” she said.
But now, Ukraine was no longer an option, either — for her or for the hundreds of other refugees who boarded the train for the five-hour journey from the border to Budapest. Dozens of volunteers greeted them, offering food, transportation and accommodation.
The Russian military has pummeled wide areas in Ukraine with airstrikes and has conducted major rocket and artillery bombardments, resulting in large numbers of casualties.
Here is a look at some of the weapons being used in the conflict.
WARPLANES AND MISSILES
The Russian military has used warplanes and Kalibr (Caliber) cruise missiles to hit facilities throughout the country.
The Kalibr is a precision weapon, but Ukrainian military facilities and government buildings apparently targeted by those missiles in Kyiv and Kharkiv are located close to residential areas, resulting in civilian casualties.
The same applies to missiles carried by Russian warplanes, which targeted military infrastructure in strikes that also involved collateral damage.
Olena was grateful to be in friendly territory, but the future looked uncertain. “I have no home, I don’t know what I’m gonna do. I just have to hope,” she said.
She lost access to her money after Ukraine blocked the bank accounts of Russian citizens, fearing they would be used to finance Russia’s assault on the country.
“I understand their reasons, because they are afraid that Russians will use this money to fight. But I’m just a civilian. I just lost all my income, I lost all my source of money, and I lost my bank account, just because of this Russian passport,” she said.
That passport, she said, caused her problems on the journey from Kyiv. Some Ukrainians expressed hostility, associating her with the enemy.
But she stressed that many Russians, at home and abroad, oppose the war, and she hopes “people would separate the government from common people that don’t want to fight.”
“Ukrainians are like a brother people,” she said. “We can’t fight amongst each other. Putin is the real enemy. When Putin came to power, I didn’t like him but I didn’t realize the whole scale of his insanity.”
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy and other officials have accused the Russian military of indiscriminately shelling residential buildings, schools and hospitals around the country.
Images from Ukraine’s second-largest city of Kharkiv that were verified by The Associated Press showed what appeared to be a barrage of Russian rockets hitting residential buildings in an attack that killed and wounded scores of civilians.
The Soviet-designed Grad (Hail), Smerch (Tornado) and Uragan (Hurricane) multiple rocket launchers are designed to fire a salvo of powerful rockets to destroy concentrations of troops or military equipment. Their use against populated areas inevitably causes heavy casualties and major damage to civilian infrastructure.
The Russian military also has a wide range of powerful Soviet-designed artillery units, which were bizarrely named after flowers, such as self-propelled 203-mm Peony and 152-mm Hyacinth and Acacia self-propelled howitzers.
On Thursday, Olena and her colleagues were given a place to stay in a leafy suburb of Budapest. It is a welcome respite.
“We don’t hear explosions anymore. We don’t hear sirens every two hours, when we have to pack our things and rush to the bomb shelter,” she said. “When we crossed the border it was such a relief that we are alive and we are safe.”
Balazs Kaufmann in Zahony, Hungary, contributed to this report.