His defection was among the many highlights of the Individuals Energy Revolution motion that overthrew the regime, which was identified for widespread human rights violations and plundering as much as $10 billion from authorities coffers.
He went on to function military chief and protection secretary of the post-revolution administration underneath democracy icon Corazon Aquino. He later succeeded her because the twelfth president of the republic, from 1992 to 1998.
Ramos leaves behind a combined legacy. To his supporters, he’s a hero of the revolution who went on to induce the Marcos household to publicly apologize for his or her misdeeds. As president, he was credited with serving to modernize the economic system and a peace settlement with insurgent forces within the southern Philippines.
To his detractors, he has but to be held responsible for police and navy abuses underneath his watch—and his actions weren’t sufficient to forestall an eventual Marcos comeback.
Born on March 18, 1928, Ramos was a profession navy official earlier than he acquired into politics. He graduated from the USA Navy Academy at West Level and served in each the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
When Marcos declared martial legislation in 1972, Ramos led the Philippine Constabulary. In a 2017 interview with Maria Ressa, founding father of the information web site Rappler and 2021 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Ramos defined why he turned towards Marcos — regardless of an extended historical past that concerned the would-be dictator hiding in his household sanctuary throughout World Conflict II.
“You must understand that even with that close relationship and association during the war… why did I go against this guy?” he stated. “It’s because of what is in the Constitution… You obey the orders of your superior, your commanding officer, if they are legal orders. But when he started to stray during the martial law years… that went against my values.”
Throughout his time period, Ramos brokered a peace settlement with the Moro Nationwide Liberation Entrance, then a separatist group working within the Muslim majority south.
In 2016, Ramos threw his assist behind populist candidate Rodrigo Duterte, the tough-talking strongman who would later be identified for a brutal anti-drug marketing campaign that left 1000’s useless.
However inside the identical 12 months, the previous president stated Duterte’s authorities was “a huge disappointment and let-down,” criticizing Duterte’s fixed cursing and hostility towards the U.S. in international coverage in a column for the broadsheet Manila Bulletin. He resigned as Duterte’s appointed particular envoy to China that very same 12 months.
Duterte additionally allowed the controversial state burial of Marcos within the Cemetery of Heroes. Ramos opposed the choice, which sparked 1000’s to take to the streets in protest. Beneath his presidency, Ramos allowed the household to bury the late dictator of their house area of Ilocos once they returned from exile in the USA. Some Marcos critics imagine Ramos shouldn’t have allowed them to return.
On this 12 months’s nationwide elections, the celebration that Ramos based endorsed dictator’s son Ferdinand Marcos Jr., who gained in a landslide. Nevertheless, officers from Ramos’ Cupboard publicly endorsed opposition candidate Maria Leonor Robredo. Ramos himself, who had been out of the general public eye over the pandemic, didn’t make a public endorsement.
Regardless of the criticism, Ramos has typically aged as a revered determine in Philippine politics. His up to date Juan Ponce Enrile, a former Marcos protection minister who defected alongside him, confronted corruption scandals and has since walked again on claims crucial of the dictator. He has since returned to the fold of energy, and serves as authorized counsel to Marcos Jr. at 98. Ramos’ successor to the presidency, Joseph Estrada, was later ousted in a second Individuals Energy revolution amid corruption points.
In a discussion board masking Ramos’s legacy final 12 months, political columnist and veteran journalist John Nery stated the previous president “passed the test of time.”
“It should be clear now that, in the end, and to the end, he retained an abiding loyalty to the primacy of the Constitution… whatever the Constitution was,” Nery wrote. He added Ramos’ loyalty to the legislation defined his defection.
“There is no gainsaying his constitutional sense, and his fidelity to it. When I think of the possibilities open to him, during the era of the coup attempts, to choose the other side—which would have completely changed the country’s history—I appreciate all the more that he knew his limits.”